Women in power: The global gender gap & Reform in the paid labor force, their socioeconomic status, education, and religiosity, as well as their
attitudes towards postmaterialism, the women´s movement, and government and explores the reasons for this development, including the role of structural and cultural factors.



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Saudi Arabia & social reforms:
In a historic decision,in the ban on women driving cars in Saudi Arabia was lifted. Despite high-income levels in the country, Saudi Arabia discriminated against its women and did not allow them to have any interaction with the outside world.  Saudi Arabian government has allowed the women to drive cars, the country has not adopted social reforms on a full scale. Before allowing the women to drive cars, the government brought in a stringent law against sexual harassment of women and also arrested and jailed a number of social activists who were cheered the change and demanded more of such reforms.
Though the situation cannot be compared with Saudi Arabia where there is both political stability and economic prosperity, the situation in most other Islamic countries is pathetic and discriminate against their women in virtually all aspects of social and political life by denying them the opportunity to either pursue modern education or seek a role in public life.

Saudi Arabia or somewhere else, there is an urgent need to introduce social and political reforms in Islamic countries to ensure that there is a greater peace and harmony among the citizens and the governments in these countries.

Giving equal status to women is certainly not on their agenda. For the oil economy a there is both political stability and economic prosperity, the situation in most other Islamic countries is pathetic and  equal status to women is an issue all over the Islamic world and it has impacted the social and political life adversely in these countries. From Pakistan to Syria, the Muslim world is tormented by extremism and dictatorship, where women have virtually no say and they are the worst victims of the turmoil that has gripped these countries.

Syrian women, who make up more than 50 percent of the Syrian population, are also taking on a more active role in local negotiations to end the conflict that has killed more than half a million people and displaced millions more, including tens of thousands of females. However, women remain grossly underrepresented in international peace negotiations.
Women are disproportionately impacted by armed conflict, and thus are typically viewed as victims rather than actors with agency in peace processes and negotiations.


Syrian women continue to be underrepresented in negotiations to resolve the conflict, which could undermine prospects for success and weaken the foundation for lasting peace in the country, 2011, Syrian women have been involved in all aspects of the conflict: from fighting, demonstrating and documenting war crimes to providing humanitarian relief and local politics.

A study from the Council on Foreign Relations found that including women in negotiations makes the agreement 64 percent less likely to fail. The same report showed that women’s participation in peace processes makes long-term agreements 35 percent more likely to last for at least 15 years.

Syria peace talks, this also means having female representatives from all ethnicities and political backgrounds represented in the Syrian constitutional committee. In post-Arab Spring Tunisia, the inclusion of women in the young democracy’s constitution-drafting process led to a more legitimate, representative constitution.
Women are an untapped source of potential and may be the answer for a peaceful outcome to one of history’s most polarizing conflicts. Women’s inclusion in today’s peace processes could spell equality in a future Syria, but peace will likely remain elusive if women continue to be sidelined.


Syrian war transforms women’s roles
A new report, Idlib lives: the untold story of heroes, documents the remarkable efforts of civil society in Idlib, Syria. Many of the informal civil initiatives are run by women, who since the war have taken up leadership and sole-provider roles. Articles in the Guardian and Defense One provide an interesting glimpse into women leading the way in civil society and the workforce amid the Syrian conflict—from White Helmets leadership, to public servants, to store managers.

“The status of women in Iran and whether they are treated equally or not is an integral part of the identity of the Islamic regime, and the hijab is a critical symbol of it,” she said.
The Girl of Revolution Street.” Not wearing a headscarf in public is punishable by a fine or up to two months in jail, and at least 29 women have been arrested for similar protests.

Say Omid Memarian: many Iranian women understand the fight against forced hijab is not about whether the hijab is good or bad! It’s about choice & equality. It’s about dignity. That’s why women who wear the hijab by choice are also part of this movement.
What women are really fighting for in Iran is equality under the law.”

A record number of women participated in Iraq’s general election on 12 May, with 2,592 women standing for office. The campaigns of some candidates drew the ire of some of Iraq’s conservative groups, forcing the UN Special Representative to the Secretary-General for Iraq to issue a statement condemning harassment of female candidates who have faced ‘death threats, harassment and cyberbullying with one aim—to undermine their engagement in the political process, and further shrink their political space.’ Despite the widespread intimidation, 19 women were elected to parliament.
Souad Abderrahim became the first female mayor of Tunis. The elevation of a woman to the position comes at a time of great change for Tunisian women. Legislation passed last year outlawed domestic rape, repealed a ‘marry your rapist’ law that allowed a rapist to marry his victim in order to lessen his sentence, and recommended opening shelters and facilities to protect women in domestic violence emergencies. The New York Times explores how thelives of women have changed in the months since the laws were introduced.


Neha Dixit)That’s because they cannot accept that a woman can also be politically astute and analytical gender, development, and, conflict, in South Asia). I come from a region where ethnocentric identity politics raises its ugly head every now and again.” Research has well established that the North-Eastern states perform much better against other regions of India, on indicators of gender performance and equality. Ethnicities are more important modes of identity, over Gender. But, is there absolutely no difference in the ways that men and women journalists are received

But what if more women were in charge of the foreign policies of their respective countries? What if a more expressly feminist approach influenced foreign relations?
focus on conflict prevention and demilitarization and a strong emphasis on inclusive peace processes in Women initiatives.  six courageous women peace laureates — Mairead Maguire, Rigoberta Menchú Tum, Jody Williams, Shirin Ebadi, Tawakkol Karman, and Leymah Gbowee — to magnify the power and visibility of women working in countries around the world for peace, justice and equality.“ The
feminist foreign policy fundamentally differs. A feminist foreign policy focuses on the human dimension of security and understands that until socioeconomic inequalities, including gender inequalities, are taken into account, there can really be no peace.“
As the recognition of the full humanity and full equality of both men and women, is peace work.“
Equality of men and women in developing more balanced foreign policies would be welcome.
„There has been a significant imbalance in terms of political leadership, and one can still see that global issues such as violence against women, equal pay for equal work, recognizing unpaid care work, ending child marriage, the experience of women and girls who are migrating, ensuring that all girls have access to health care and education, access of widows to land rights,

Women’s participation in political life, empowers women across Asia to play active roles in political and public decision-making is fundamental to equitable societies process, effective governance, and improved human development outcomes. When women are able to contribute to decisions that affect their lives – as active citizens, educated voters, and effective leaders – entire communities bene.

Myanmar, more than 30 million voters cast parliamentary votes in 2015, many for the time. One hundred and fty women were elected.

In Indonesia, we supported the development of a community reporting platform to promote women’s participation in holding governments ac countable in the delivery of public services related to drinking water and security platform will serve as an important tool for information sharing and advocacy on issues that are critical to women.

In the Philippines: study identi ed key issues: conflict-related shifts in mobility that con- stricted men’s freedom of movement and created new opportunities for women, shifts in gender norms that increased women’s economic partici- pation, and limited opportunities for women’s participation in the peace process.  e report pro- vided recommendations on how to address gender dynamics and sustain gender-transformative change in the post-conflict government context process.

STRENGTHENING GENDER: Women’s participation in national and local politics,  to incorpo- rate a gender perspective into their work and e ect policy change that bene ts women and girls.

Nepal: support women and girls to participate in the political process trainings have supported leaders in Nepal to use policy and advocacy tools to facilitate and promote gender equality.

It is important that governments support these Foundation: Because the Asia Foundation promotes gender-responsive policy planning and budgeting to respond to the needs of women, including by analyzing the impact of policies on women and girls, and promoting resource allocation to advance gender equality and women’s rights.


Singapur: women’s political presence has serious implications.
Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong built on this and made the government more inclusive and focused on tackling inequality, representative by increasing the number of women in politics. Currently, 23 per cent of our parliamentarians are women and they make up only around 10 per cent of the Cabinet (two out of 21).

Asian Barometer – a public opinion survey in East and Southeast Asia. They were Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Mongolia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam. In these places, women’s legislative presence is not met with an increase in women’s political engagement; in fact, it seems to trigger a backlash.
In these countries, the rise of women politicians is actually discouraging women in general from engaging in politics. A women in politics is strikingly disconnected from women’s economic and social lives more generally.


women survivors of conflict and oppression in Yangon, Women’s Experiences of War and Impunity in Myanmar” captures the stories of 31 women, including former political prisoners in Yangon, Ta’ang women living in the conflict zones of northern Shan State, female Karen village heads, and land rights activists.

Women survivors living in conflict areas and female advocates oppressed by authorities for their pro-democracy activities were struggling with trauma.
One-time political prisoner and former National League for Democracy (NLD) member Daw Thet Thet Lwin recounted her experiences of being arrested several times as a university student for her participation in the pro-democracy uprising of 1988.
Most of the political prisoners were arrested as young women, stifling their educational opportunities and putting many in financial hardship after their release.

AJAR Director Galuh Wandita, says that the women have had not only their political rights violated, but their social and economic rights as well.


Lebanon’s parliamentary elections – women

The Lebanese political system is an exclusive male-dominated club of institutionalised political kinship whose members refused to include a female quota in the electoral law adopted in 2017. Seats in the parliament are allotted according to different sects.
Although women gained the right to vote as early as 1953 and have since run for elections, only 10 women have become Members of Parliament (MPs) to date. They have largely stayed outside of Parliament’s halls for many years. The 2005 elections, held shortly after the assassination of late Prime Minister Rafic Hariri and the withdrawal of the Syrian army from Lebanon, ended with only six female MPs out of a body of 128 seats; this number dropped to four seats in 2009.

women’s participation policy is a proven strategy to improve counterterrorism efforts. They suggest is that “women are well-positioned to detect early signs because their rights and physical integrity are a fundamentalists” and that the Government and ally nations should promote women’s participation to improve operational effectiveness and analyze how including women in peace talks, peacekeeping units, and international security forces strengthens missions and improves national security. Increasing women’s participation in conflict resolution and postconflict processes will help the Worldwide and respond effecty to security threats around the world and advance interests.


„The current size of the gender gap by measuring the extent to which women in 58 countries have achieved equality with men in five critical areas: economic participation, economic opportunity, political empowerment, educational attainment, and health and well-being. Countries that do not capitalize on the full potential of one half of their societies are misallocating their human resources and undermining their competitive potential“.

The conclusion considers the political implications of the findings in our modern gender gap und the women’s movement, and government.

Women’s political rights is very important” to bring more women and nonwhite people into the political process and “identity politics,”
The Democratic base has never been more eager to elect women than it is now, and their social rights than any other part of the world and is the progress of reflect on the challenges faced by women around the world.

You right is my right, equal rights for women.

Carmen Aguilera Garcia

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